Relationship is the key

Relationship is the keyI have had the privilege of teaching in multicultural settings in five countries across the globe. In my experience, the quality of the relationships I have with my students trumps almost any other factor in shifting student achievement. Russell Bishop calls this relationship-centred education, and he sees it as an essential approach in culturally responsive pedagogy1. He mentions that highly effective, culturally responsive teachers have six characteristics1, i.e.

  1. They care for Mãori students as Mãori. They create a learning context for Mãori students to draw on their own funds of knowledge and bring it to the classroom.
  2. They have high expectations of students and they signal this to students.
  3. The culturally informed pedagogy these teachers use promotes the fourth element of being a highly effective teacher.
  4. Their interactions with Maori students provide the students with academic feedback feed forward and negotiated co-construction of learning (learners among learners) as opposed to transmission models of learning.
  5. They use a range of strategies effectively, implying that they understand the pedagogy behind the strategies, e.g. cooperative learning is not ‘group work’.
  6. They use evidence of students’ performance to guide where they take teaching and learning, and they ensure that students know about their outcomes in a formative way so that students also know what they need to learn and where they are headed.

Research backs up the importance of teacher-student relationships in student achievement, e.g. it had a significant, positive effect size in John Hattie’s meta-analysis of influences on learning outcomes2, and in his book “The Art and Science of Teaching” Robert Marzano states, “Arguably the quality of the relationships teachers have with students is the keystone of effective management and perhaps even the entirety of teaching”3. It is interesting to note that the generalised principles embodied by Russell Bishop’s six points are highlighted by both John Hattie and Robert Marzano’s research into what constitutes ‘effective’ teaching and learning. I believe that the principles of high quality teaching and learning are timeless.

The reality is that very few of us are able to display all of these characteristics consistently and, although we may do certain things really well, there are always areas of improvement.

  • One of the things that our school has started doing well the past year and a half is trying to be more intentional about being culturally responsive in the way we communicate with others. We have worked with one of our Mãori parents to welcome newcomers, like new staff members or special guests, with a proper powhiri whenever appropriate. We recognise that New Zealand is a bi-cultural nation and we want to honour and respect our cultural heritage. These powhiris have enriched our school culture and it instils a sense of cultural pride in our Mãori students.
  • An area that I am still working on is utilising the funds of knowledge that our Mãori, Pasifika and other cultural communities can bring to teaching and learning activities in the technology learning area. It will enable me to facilitate learning programmes that are contextually relevant, promoting higher engagement from all of my students. There are remarkable technological innovations in Mãori culture, such as the waka4, that may be a great starting point for rich conversations about the impact of technology on society.

Culturally responsive pedagogy is not optional. It is an integral part of being an effective teacher. However, it requires an intentional, daily reflection on whether my actions and words have displayed this to my students. The best people to tell me whether I have succeeded or not, and how I can improve, are my students. Let’s strive to be learners among learners1.

References and notes:
1. Bishop, R. (1 September 2009). A culturally responsive pedagogy of relations. Retrieved 24 March 2016 from http://www.edtalks.org/video/culturally-responsive-pedagogy-relations
2. Hattie, J. (2009). Influences and effect sizes related to student achievement (diagram). Retrieved 24 March 2016 from http://visible-learning.org/hattie-ranking-influences-effect-sizes-learning-achievement/
3. Marzano, R.J. (2007). The art and science of teaching. Virginia: ASCD
4. “In the past, Māori used waka (canoes) just as we use cars today. New Zealand’s waterways were like roads, running along the coast and up rivers. Waka would be paddled along them, carrying people and goods. Some Māori still build traditional waka today”. Hoturoa Barclay-Kerr. ‘Waka – canoes’, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 12-Oct-15. Retrieved from http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/waka-canoes

Photo credit: Zarko Drincic via Foter.com / CC BY-ND

The reality of plagiarism

PlagiarismThe Internet gives us access to a wealth of information. Whereas in the days before the Internet information was mostly found in libraries or knowledgeable people, today all we have to do is type a request in a search engine and be overwhelmed with too much information to handle. In fact information has become such a commodity that I think we have lost respect for other people’s intellectual property. Unless we intentionally teach our students to cite the sources of their information and how to use raw information to produce ‘new’ information, we may unwittingly be encouraging our students to be intellectual thieves. Unfortunately, or fortunately, I learned this the hard way.

The website that landed me in trouble

At a previous school (2003 to 2007) I taught marine science. It was a compulsory, semester-long course for grade 12 (year 13) students. I loved teaching the subject since much of the host nation’s culture and economy were rooted and dependent on the ocean. In addition, marine science gave great context to the pure sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology.

Each student created a detailed, scholarly website of a marine organism of their choice as a culminating project for the course. I encouraged students to use any resources they might find on the Internet but to make an effort to cite the sources of their information. Although our school didn’t have a policy about acknowledging digital sources, I was very aware of the consequences of plagiarism since I was enrolled in a postgraduate degree at the time and the university emphasized to us the importance of respecting intellectual property. In the end, the students and I were very proud of their final product.

A few weeks after they completed the project I got an email from a marine photographer who threatened me with legal action. He claimed that I was using an image that he owned illegally. Fortunately for me the student did cite the source of the photo correctly, which I pointed out to the photographer. In a gesture of good will, I removed the offending page from the website’s menu so that public users could not browse to the photo. I didn’t want to delete the page altogether because I wanted to keep the website as an example for future classes. I emailed the photographer back to say that I had removed the page from the public eye.

However, this was not good enough! A week later the photographer emailed me back with an even more threatening message demanding that I remove the page immediately. He did not like that the image was still embedded on my student’s page despite the fact that no-one could navigate to it from our site. I obviously had something to learn about how search engines catalogued images. I promptly removed the image from the page because I was concerned with the integrity of my students and our school, and I had no desire of settling this matter in court.

The ethical dilemma

My students and I learned an important lesson from this experience. Although we felt that we followed due process by acknowledging the source of the image, the creator’s response clearly demonstrated that acknowledging the source of our information was not enough. When a photo, video or piece of text was produced by someone else, it was important to ask the creator permission to use it if the licensing wasn’t clear – especially when the creator made a living from it! The authors can say no and there is nothing you can do about it – it is their intellectual property. I was very fortunate that I didn’t end up in the Catch-22 position of the blog author who had to pay thousands of dollars for the ‘incorrect’ use of an image in a post1. The good news is that some creators will be more than willing to give you permission to use media if you ask them for permission first and explain that you are using it for educational purposes.

By respecting the creator’s intellectual property and working with the creator to remove the “offending” image, I was fulfilling my “commitment to society, teaching and modelling those positive values which are widely accepted in society and encouraging my students to apply them and critically appreciate their significance”2 and I showed “commitment to the profession, advancing the interests of the teaching profession through responsible ethical practice”2.

Ever since this incident I am very careful when I use images in material that I publish online and I try my best to use images that are clearly marked for reuse. I go to great lengths to teach students the importance of citing their sources and to use images with a license that gives your permission to freely reuse an image. Google Search allows you to choose this setting, as shown in this screen shot I have taken.

Image Labeled for ReuseThere are also many photography websites that produce images that can be reused with permission, so long as they are cited correctly. Most of the photos I use on this blog are either from foter.com or I have taken them myself.

The moral of the story: my students and I always have to cite our sources and we need to make an effort to ask a creator for permission to use work if we are not sure whether it is legal to use it or not. I believe this is becoming more and more important as we collaboratively “do things” with knowledge in a knowledge society3.

References and notes:
1. Chrystie. (7 January 2016). The $7,500 Blogging Mistake That Every Blogger Needs to Avoid! Retrieved 21 March 2016 from http://www.livingfornaptime.com/blogging-tips/starting-a-blog/blogging-mistakes-to-avoid/
2. The Education Council Code of Ethics for Certficated Teachers. Retrieved 21 March 2016 from https://educationcouncil.org.nz/content/code-of-ethics-certificated-teachers-0
3. Gilbert, J. (2005). Cathing the knowledge wave? The knowledge society and the future of education. Wellington: NZCER Press.

Photo credit: jobadge via Foter.com / CC BY-NC

Being social in teaching and learning

Social MediaI have been using social media tools for about 11 years. My wife and I started teaching internationally in 1999 and finding an efficient and effective way to communicate with family and friends became a necessity as our personal and professional community grew. I created a personal blog in 2005 while we were working at our second international school to keep in touch with family, friends and former students and colleagues.

An international audience inspires

Although I incorporated very little of my initial foray in social media in my teaching and learning, I did realise that using an Internet-enabled communication tool gave me access to a massive audience. This was especially valuable in the context of international schooling where students’ extended family in other countries wanted to know how they were doing and what they were learning.

A direct result of this realisation was completing an action research project that aimed to study the effect on the learning outcomes of marine biology students when they were asked to create a public website on a sea creature of their choice. The students enjoyed that their work was on display for ‘everyone’ and it inspired them to take more care with the presentation of their work. However, not all the students enjoyed showing their learning in a digital format and the content management system (CMS) proved to be unintuitive too – it was the early days of the CMS as a content delivery system …

Facebook

I taught an asynchronous online class, Oceanography, for the The Virtual High School for 2 years. The students in my class were from all over the world. The learning management system was not as well designed for collaboration as some of the ‘new’ social media platforms of that time. I encouraged my students to collaborate via Facebook and many of them told me during and after the course that the study groups they formed on Facebook proved to be very helpful in helping them stay motivated. Facebook helped them to get to know each other on a more personal level, something the official learning management system didn’t facilitate well.

Twitter

I joined Twitter in 2008 and a whole new world of learning opened up to me. One of the challenges with teaching in international schools at that point was that I only networked with like-minded educators from other schools once every two years due to cost constraints and the massive difference between local and international schooling systems. Twitter enabled me to communicate in real time about a challenge or a problem, as mentioned by Brian Crosby1 in the Connected Educators video, enabling me to be more productive as a teacher. It also ensured that I stayed current with developments in the North American education system on a day to day basis.

To this day Twitter remains my favourite social media platform. I am trying to be thoughtful about who I follow on Twitter to ensure I get access to a broad range of ideas. It helps me to be a more reflective practitioner as I consider the impact of other people’s ideas on my understanding of effective teaching and learning – even if their ideas differ from mine.

Blogs

As I started following some of the links people shared on Twitter, I discovered that many educators loved sharing best practice, teaching and learning frustrations and their dreams for the future of education via blogs. I started curating the RSS feeds2 of these blogs with Google Reader, a now-retired RSS feed reader. It provided me with a wealth of current ideas and thought in the world of education. It became a valuable source of teaching and learning research as my colleagues and I attempted to integrate educational technology effectively into our subject areas. I realised that it had great potential as a classroom resource for students and I encouraged and taught them to do their own curation for long-term research assignments.

I presented some of my ideas at a education conference for international educators in 2012 and you can still download (the now outdated) eBook from this website (just follow the links above to My Publications3).

The challenges

I will briefly discuss the challenging aspects of social media from a professional learning and teaching point of view.

Professional learning
I have found two challenges with learning via social media. The first is that learning from social media can be like drinking water from a fire hydrant: it is very easy to be overwhelmed with the deluge of information. You have to be very intentional about curating what you want to read. I have found that curation tools such as Feedly4 and Paper.li5 enable me to learn what I am interested in when I have time for it. Here are three web newspapers that I am curating with the help of Paper.li.

The second challenge with learning via social media is that social media can often be a lot of noise – and I say this at the risk of being part of that din. What I mean is this: since it is easy for everyone to publish her or his thoughts, a lot of social media is based on opinion and it is well-known that carefully crafted media can be used to influence people, whether the idea being propagated is evidence-based or not. Politicians do this very well …

Now I realise that you can prove anything with ‘evidence’, but I believe in education we have to be very deliberate about choosing to digest teaching and learning ideas that are based on evidence. It doesn’t mean we can’t travel in uncharted waters but we have to try to do this in an informed way. As I have mentioned in my previous post, I believe that the principles of sound teaching and learning have not changed much over the years. Alfie Kohn echoed this in an article6 that addressed the thoughtless use of educational technology in education. I quote (emphasis mine),

We can’t answer the question “Is tech useful in schools?” until we’ve grappled with a deeper question: “What kinds of learning should be taking place in those schools?” If we favor an approach by which students actively construct meaning, an interactive process that involves a deep understanding of ideas and emerges from the interests and questions of the learners themselves, well, then we’d be open to the kinds of technology that truly support this kind of inquiry. Show me something that helps kids create, design, produce, construct—and I’m on board. Show me something that helps them make things collaboratively (rather than just on their own), and I’m even more interested—although it’s important to keep in mind that meaningful learning never requires technology, so even here we should object whenever we’re told that software (or a device with a screen) is essential.

Teaching
My biggest concerns with the use of social media in the classroom are around the privacy and safety of students. I realise we can teach our students digital citizenship skills and we are fortunate that groups like Common Sense Media has produced fantastic resources7 for this. However, do teachers want to be complicit in social media services’ openly acknowledged collection of users’ interests in order to increase their revenue?

Another challenge that can be addressed via careful planning and curation of content is the fact that social media platforms have been designed to connect people. Since students usually do not use social media within the context of education, it must not come as a surprise if students do not ‘stay on task’ when learning tasks do not have a very specific function for social media in a lesson.

Conclusion

Social media has become an integral part of modern society. It enables us to connect and collaborate with a global audience and it can contextualise teaching activities. When social media tools are used thoughtfully, they can add real value to any classroom.

References and notes:
1. Connected Educators. (18 September 2013). Retrieved 18 March 2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=216&v=K4Vd4JP_DB8
2. “RSS (Rich Site Summary; originally RDF Site Summary; often called Really Simple Syndication) uses a family of standard web feed formats to publish frequently updated information: blog entries, news headlines, audio, video. An RSS document (called “feed”, “web feed”, or “channel”) includes full or summarized text, and metadata, like publishing date and author’s name”. Retrieved 18 March 2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS
3. Blom, B.J. (2012). Social media for professional development and classroom research. Retrieved 18 March 2016 from https://www.dropbox.com/s/1efv1neekeej6ow/social_media_for_professional_development__research.epub
4. Feedly. Retrieved 19 March 2016 from http://feedly.com
5. Paper.li. Retrieved 19 March 2016 from http://paper.li/
6. Kohn, A. (16 March 2016). The overselling of educational technology. Retrieved 19 March 2016 from https://www.edsurge.com/news/2016-03-16-the-overselling-of-education-technology
7. Common Sense Education. Retrieved 19 March 2016 from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/educators/digital-citizenship

Photo credit: mkhmarketing via Foter.com / CC BY

Education is trendy

IssuesIn my opinion, the fundamental principles of effective teaching and learning practices have not changed much over the years. Although John Hattie’s “meta-analysis of quantitative measures of the effect of different factors on educational outcomes”1 is controversial, I think the findings2 support what most “with-it”3 educators know constitute effective teaching and learning (timeless principles?).

The challenge is that education has always been political – just do a search in your favourite search engine to be overwhelmed with discussions on politics’ dance with education. It is also quite clear from Sir Ken Robinson’s talk on changing education paradigms4. He highlights that countries all over the world are busy with educational reform because they are trying to stay economically viable and culturally rooted in this era of globalisation.

Another significant takeaway from his presentation is that the schooling system that most of us have experienced as primary, secondary and tertiary students, and likely teach in at present, has been “designed and conceived for a different age”, i.e. “the intellectual culture of the enlightenment and the economic circumstance of the industrial revolution”4. However, we now live in the so-called “Knowledge Age” and “in the Knowledge Age, the ability to generate value through innovation (and the rapid creation of new knowledge) has become the basis for economic development”5. This is creating some trends in education and I am briefly going to discuss the effect of two of these trends on my practice.

Personalisation of learning

The industrial model of education is generally a “one size fits all” approach that does not have space for the “messiness” that is perceived to be part of the “rapid creation of new knowledge”5, a characteristic of the “Knowledge Age”. Although great teachers always have designed teaching and learning experiences that recognise the unique characteristics of each individual in the classroom, it has not been an easy task in a system that ‘standardises’ education for all. In its “Evaluation at a Glance: Priority Learners in New Zealand Schools” report of 2012, the Education Review Office (ERO) encourages New Zealand schools to be more intentional about making a shift towards student-centred learning. One can’t help but wonder how much of a shift has happened in our schools the past four years.

I have found that project-based learning activities in the technology learning area lends itself very well to a personalised, student-centred approach to teaching and learning. Instead of requiring every student in the class to complete a project that follows a “recipe” producing twenty to thirty exact replicas of the same product, students are assigned open-ended projects that they can personalise. One example is the trash-to-fashion unit that our year 8 students are busy with in term 1. Although all of the students are creating garments and accessories from recyclable materials, that is where the similarity stops. Every group is pursuing their own design. It may be interesting to explore whether I need to make technology even more personalised and student-centred by allowing them to choose project topics that are completely their own choice. What do you think?

A responsive and rich curriculum that uses knowledge to develop learning capacity

As mentioned earlier, it has become important in the Knowledge Age to “generate value through innovation”5. One concept that has been around for a number of years but gradually been getting more and more recognition7 as a valuable collaborative and thinking model to encourage innovation, is design thinking8. I have started using design thinking with great success with year 5 to 8 and 11 to 13 students in the technology learning area. I am excited about the possibilities I foresee for this problem-solving approach to develop all of the key competencies9 in my students. I also find that it is making the project-based learning activities that I have planned for my students manageable both for them and for me. Lastly, when design thinking is implemented properly, it is a more student-centred approach to learning and I believe it facilitates the personalisation of learning.

Design thinking can also be used by departments or schools to be more future-focused, or to identify and solve challenges they may be facing. If you are interested in design thinking, you can explore the topic by exploring these online resources.

To lifelong learning!

References and notes:
1. John Hattie. (17 May 2015). Retrieved 12 March 2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hattie
2. Visible learning infographic. (2003, 2009). Retrieved 12 March 2016 from http://visible-learning.org/2013/03/visible-learning-infographic/
3. “Withitness was Jacob Kounin’s word to describe a teacher’s ability to know what was going on at all times in his/her classroom. This can be as simple as making scanning looks around the room every once in awhile. Kounin said that is was not necessary for the teacher to know what is going on, but for the students to perceive that the teacher knows.” (26 October 2015). Retrieved 12 March 2016 from https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Classroom_Management_Theorists_and_Theories/Jacob_Kounin
4. RSA ANIMATE: Changing Education Paradigms. (14 October 2010). Retrieved 12 March 2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDZFcDGpL4U
5. Bolstad, R., Gilbert, J., McDowall, S., Bull, A., Boyd, S., & Hipkins, R. (2012). Supporting future-oriented learning & teaching: A New Zealand perspective. Wellington: Ministry of Education. Retrieved 12 March 2016 from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/schooling/109306
6. Evaluation at a Glance: Priority Learners in New Zealand Schools. (29 August 2012). Retrieved 12 March 2016 from http://www.ero.govt.nz/National-Reports/Evaluation-at-a-Glance-Priority-Learners-in-New-Zealand-Schools-August-2012/Findings
7. CORE Education’s Ten Trends 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016 from http://www.core-ed.org/thought-leadership/ten-trends
8. Welcome to the virtual crash course in design thinking. Retrieved 12 March 2016 from http://dschool.stanford.edu/dgift/
9. Key competencies. (2014). Retrieved 12 March 2016 from http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/Key-competencies

Photo credit: pasuay @ incendo via Foter.com / CC BY

Exploring the impact of professional connections

Connections

I have been asked to reflect on the impact that two of my professional connections have had on my practice and professional community. I have done this after I have created a professional connections map which demonstrates my current and potential professional connections.

My professional connections map

I used an app called Ideament1 to create the following diagram. Out of respect for the privacy of my professional connections I have not expanded the map to make individuals identifiable. Click on the image for a larger version.

Professional Connections Map

The map is organised according to my communities of practice, identified in a previous post. I have decided to add my social media professional learning network (PLN) as a separate branch in order to show how it is connected to my three communities of practice, i.e. “teaching technology”, “teaching Christian Living” and “using digital technology”. I value my social media PLN but I find that I relate differently to professional connections that I only know from online interaction than to the people I rub shoulders with every day. I will now briefly reflect on the impact that two of my professional connections have made on my practice and professional community.

Year 0 – 2 Team Leader (Using digital technology → Junior Campus Teachers) 

The year 0 – 2 team leader and I regularly discuss the effective use of digital technology in her team. Since she and her team teach level 1 and 2 of the New Zealand curriculum, she asks questions about the use of digital technology that tend to be foundational to the pedagogically-sound use of it in the classroom. This has had a significant impact on my contribution to the professional communities I am part of.

A comment that she made in a conversation last year led me to complete a literature review that explored the question, “How might the use of digital technology enable active interaction with knowledge for students at a primary school”. This literature review helped me to better understand how to explain to all of my colleagues why and how we should use digital technology in the classroom. You can read my literature review by clicking here2.

These interactions show the rich conversations that happen when two people from two different levels of schooling are able to discuss pedagogical challenges. The year 0 to 2 team leader teaches a completely different level of the curriculum and she has a strong background in literacy. My background is in intermediate and high school science, mathematics and technology. We have been able to design an inquiry project that will explore whether doing things with knowledge using the iPad’s ability to record audio, photographs, video and annotated video will develop students’ thinking skills. One could argue that we are attempting through this inquiry “to connect the student with the abstract world of disciplinary knowledge (in this case science and literacy) and the real world of experience”3 using the possibilities that the iPad brings into the classroom. We believe the outcome of this inquiry can be beneficial for most, if not all, of my colleagues at Elim Christian College.

Head of Department for Digital Technology

My relationship with the head of department for digital technology at the senior school is another example of how professional connections across different levels of the curriculum can have a positive impact on one’s practice and the professional community you are part of.

The past two years I have been involved with starting an introduction to computer science track with years 5 to 8 students. The high school, years 9 to 13, have not been offering a computer science track due to staffing constraints. The head of department and I started discussing the possibility of trying to start such a programme for the year 9 students who showed an aptitude for the subject in year 8. This has led to a number of interesting developments.

I heard of the CS4HS conference4 at the University of Canterbury and I let the head of department know that funding was available for scholarships. The two of us applied for scholarships to attend the conference and both of us got accepted. The conference helped us realise that there are some unfortunate misconceptions about computer science as a learning area and as a consequence promising candidates didn’t consider it as a career. Computer science also suffers from a lack of diversity due to stereotyping that is rooted in misconceptions about the field. We reported this to the principal after the conference and he has encouraged us to raise an awareness of computer science amongst the high school students. A direct result from this directive is that I now team-teach year 11 to 13 design and technology students with the head of department. This relationship is enabling me to get a better understanding of NCEA requirements in this learning area, something that I am presently quite inexperienced in. It is challenging him to find ways to promote the computer science achievement standards with the older students, especially year 10 students, in an effort to grow the programme over the next few years.

Our connection has made a subtle but positive impact on our colleagues in other departments of the high school too. A number of them are now considering how they can integrate computer programming into their courses in an “interdisciplinary approach”5 and some of them also want to learn the basics, a win-win for both students and teachers.

So I encourage you to form professional connections with people outside of your teaching context. It will add value to your practice and the professional communities you are part of.

References and notes:
1. Ideament can be found in the iOS app store at https://itunes.apple.com/nz/app/ideament-formerly-idea-sketch/id367246522?mt=8
2. Blom, B. (2016). Knowing with digital technology. Retrieved from https://app.box.com/s/yj9nsgm0vzr6bxmwsh6h215w2yozh6pb
3. Mathison, S. & Freeman, M. (1997). The logic of interdisciplinary studies. Retrieved from http://www.albany.edu/cela/reports/mathisonlogic12004.pdf
4. CS4HS Christchurch 2015. Retrieved from http://www.cosc.canterbury.ac.nz/cs4hs/2015/index.html
5. Mathison and Freeman3 define an “interdisciplinary approach” as “always consciously combining two or more disciplines and keeping them distinct and in focus. It has clear objectives that include both critical thinking skills and in-depth content, and is typically teacher directed but may welcome student input.”

Photo credit: Karwik via Foter.com / CC BY-NC-ND